EASY-CARE: See EASE-OF-CARE.
EDGE CRIMPING: See TEXTURING, Edge Crimping Method.
EDGE ROLL: The curl that develops on the edge of a single-knit fabric preventing it from lying flat.
ELASTICITY: The ability of a strained material to recover its original size and shape immediately after removal of the stress that causes deformation.
ELASTICIZED FABRIC: A fabric that contains elastic threads. Such fabrics are used for girdles, garters, and similar items.
ELASTIC LIMIT: In strength and stretch testing, the load below which the specimen shows elasticity and above which it shows permanent deformation. (Also see YIELD POINT.)
ELASTIC RECOVERY: The degree to which fibers, yarn, or cord returns to its original size and shape after deformation from stress.
ELASTOMERS: Synthetic polymers having properties of natural rubber such as high stretchability and recovery.
- A measure of the ease of transporting electric charge from one point to another in an electric field.
- The reciprocal of resistivity.
ELECTRICAL FINISH: A finish designed to increase or maintain electrical resistivity of a textile material.
ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY: The resistance of longitudinal electrical flow through a uniform rod of unit length and unit cross-sectional area.
ELMENDORF TEAR TESTER: A tester designer to determine the tearing strength of paper. It is also used to measure the tearing strength of very lightweight fabrics and resin-finished apparel fabrics. A trapezoidal fabric sample is employed.
ELONGATION: The deformation in the direction of load caused by a tensile force. Elongation is measured in units of length (e.g., millimeters, inches) or calculated as a percentage of the original specimen length. Elongation may be measured at any specified load or at the breaking load.
ELONGATION AT BREAK: The increase in length when the last component of the specimen breaks.
EMBOSSING: A calendering process for producing raised or projected figures or designs in relief on fabric surfaces. Embossed surfaces are usually produced on fabrics by engraved, heated rollers that give a raised effect. Embossed velvet or plush is made by shearing the pile to different levels or by pressing part of the pile flat.
EMBROIDERY: Ornamental designs worked on a fabric with threads. Embroidery may be done either by hand or by machine.
EMULSION: A suspension of finely divided liquid droplets in a second liquid, i.e., oil in water or vice versa.
EMULSION POLYMERIZATION: A three-phase reaction system consisting of monomer, an aqueous phase containing the initiator, and colloidal particles of polymer. Polymerization takes place in the colloidal phase. The process enables the production of very high molecular weights at increased polymerization rates. Only applicable to addition polymers.
EMULSION SPINNING: The process of spinning synthetic polymers in dispersion form, then heating to coalesce the dispersed particles. Normally a matrix polymer provides support until coalescence is completed.
- An individual warp yarn. A warp is composed of a number of ends.
- An individual sliver, slubbing, roving, yarn, thread, or cord.
- A short length or remnant of fabric.
END OUT: A void caused by a missing warp yarn.
ENERGY ABSORPTION: The energy required to break or elongate a fiber to a certain point.
ENERGY-TO-BREAK: The total energy required to rupture a yarn or cord.
ENTANGLED YARNS: See COMPACTED YARNS.
- A method of forming a fabric by wrapping and knotting fibers in a web about each other, by mechanical means, or by the use of jets of pressurized water, so as to bond the fibers. (Also see HYDROENTANGLING and SPUNLACED FABRIC.)
- See INTERMINGLING.
ENTERING: The process of threading each warp yarn on a loom beam through a separate drop wire, heddle, and reed space in preparation for weaving. This process may be done by hand or by a semiautomatic machine.
EPITROPIC FIBERS: Fibers with an altered surface property, e.g., electrically conducting, abrasive, etc.
EPOXY RESIN: In textiles, a compound used in durable-press applications for white fabrics. It provides chlorine resistance but causes loss of tensile strength.
EQUIVALENT SINGLE YARN NUMBER: See YARN NUMBER, EQUIVALET SINGLE.
EROSION CONTROL FABRICS: See GEOTEXTILES.
ESTERIFICATION: The chemical process of combining an acid and an alcohol to form an ester. Cellulose acetate is an ester formed by the reaction of acetic acid and the hydroxyl groups of cellulose. Polyethylene terephthalate, the most common fiber-forming polyester, is a product of esterification of teraphthalic acid with ethylene glycol.
ESTER INTERCHANGE: See TRANSESTERIFICATION.
ESTHETICS: See AESTHETICS.
ETCHING: See PRINTING, Burn-Out Printing.
ETHYLENE: A petroleum derivative (C2H4) that is the raw material for polyethylene.
ETHYLENE GLYCOL: A viscous, sweet, colorless liquid, (CH2OHCH2OH). Principal uses are as an intermediate in the manufacture of polyester fibers and as automobile antifreeze.
EVENNESS TESTING: Determination of the variation in weight per unit length and thickness of yarns or fibers aggregates such as roving, sliver, or top.
EXCESSIVE CLEARER WASTE: A higher that normal amount of short and regular fibers that become attached to the drafting rolls and are transferred to the clearer brushes to accumulate in abnormal amounts until they are removed manually.
EXHAUSTION: During wet processing, the ratio at any time between the amount of dye or substance taken up by the substrate and the amount originally available.
EXTENDED LENGTH: The length of a face pile yarn required to produce one inch of tufted carpet.
EXTENSIBILITY: The ability of a materiel to undergo elongation on the application of force. (Also see ELONGATION.)
EXTRACTABLES: The material that can be removed from textiles by means of a solvent (in many cases, water).
EXTRACTION: Removal of one substance from another, often accomplished by means of a solvent.
EXTRACT PRINTING: See PRINTING, Discharge Printing.
- Generally a machine in which molten or semisoft materials are forced under pressure through a die to form continuous tubes, sheets, or fibers. It may consist of a barrel, heating elements, a screw, ram or plunger, and a die through which the material is pushed to give it shape.
- In fiber manufacture the machine that feeds molten polymer to an extrusion manifold or that first melts the polymer in a uniform manner then feeds it to a manifold and associated equipment for extrusion. (Also see SCREW MELTER.)
EXTRUSION: See SPINNING, 2.
- A series of small holes made to receive a string or tape. A buttonhole stitch is worked around the holes.
- A type of yarn guide used on a creel.
- A fabric style with areas of cut-outs surrounded by stitching.