KERATIN: The basic protein constituent of wool and other hair fibers.
KERSEY: A heavily fulled or milled woolen fabric having a high lustrous nap and a “grainy” face, kersey is frequently used in overcoats.
- A light yellowish brown.
- A khaki-colored cloth of cotton, wool, or combinations of these fibers with manufactured fibers used primarily in military uniforms and workclothes.
KIER: A large metal tank, capable of being heated uniformly, used for wet processing.
KIER BOILING: Process of boiling cellulosic materials in alkaline liquors in a kier at or above atmospheric pressure.
- In fabrics, a place where a short length of yarn has spontaneously doubled back on itself.
- In yarn, see SNARL.
KINKY THREAD: See KINK.
KNEE BREAK-OUT TEST: A method to evaluate the performance of fabrics, especially boys’ wear, when subjected to abrasion, stretch, and impact forces under conditions which simulate ordinary wear at the knee.
KNEEING: Abnormal behavior of a spinning threadline (especially in melt spinning) in which one or more filaments form an angle (knee).
KNIT-DE-KNIT: See TEXTURING, Knit-de-Knit Method.
KNIT FABRIC: A structure produced by interlooping one or more ends of yarn or comparable material. (Also see KNITTING.)
KNIT-MISS: A form of tricot knitting in which yarns on each bar of a two-bar machine are knit at alternate courses only. This type of knitting permits the use of heavy-denier yarns without creating undesirable bulkiness in the fabric.
KNITTING: A method of constructing fabric by interlocking series of loops of one or more yarns. The two major classes of knitting are warp knitting and weft knitting, as follows:
- Warp Knitting: A type of knitting in which the yarns generally run lengthwise in the fabric. The yarns are prepared as warps on beams with one or more yarns for each needle. Examples of this type of knitting are tricot, milanese, and raschel knitting.
Milanese Knitting: A type of run-resistant warp knitting with a diagonal rib effect using several sets of yarns.
Raschel Knitting: A versatile type of warp knitting made in plain and Jacquard patterns; the latter can be made with intricate eyelet and lacy patterns and is often used for underwear fabrics. Raschel fabrics are coarser than other warp-knit fabrics, but a wide range of fabrics can be made. Raschel knitting machines have one or two sets of latch needles and up to thirty sets of guides.
Tricot Knitting: A run-resistant type of warp knitting in which either single or double sets of yarn are used. (Also see TRICOT.)
- Weft Knitting: A common type of knitting, in which one continuous thread runs crosswise inthe fabric making all of the loops in one course. Weft knitting types are circular and flat knitting.
Circular Knitting: The fabric is produced on the knitting machine in the form of a tube, the threads running continuously around the fabric.
Flat Knitting: The fabric is produced on the knitting machine in flat form, the threads alternating back and forth across the fabric. The fabric can be given shape in the knitting process by increasing or decreasing loops. Full-fashioned garments are made on a flatknitting machine. (Also see FLAT-KNIT FABRIC.)
KRAFT PULPS: Pulps prepared in the alkaline liquor consisting of sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, and sodium sulfide. Also called sulfate pulp.
KRAFT YARN: A yarn made by twisting a strip of paper manufactured from kraft pulp.
KROY® SHRINKPROOFING PROCESS: Continuous process for shrinkproofing wool tops in which there is a direct chlorination step with no intervening chemical reaction followed by anti-chlorination and neutralization. Provides better hand and strength than does conventional shrinkproofing.