Textile Glossary - O

OATMEAL: A heavy, soft linen fabric with a pebbled or crepe effect.

OFF-CLIP: See SCALLOPED SELVAGE.

OFF-SQUARE:
  1. A term to describe the difference between the percentage of warp crimp and the percentage of filling crimp.
  2. A term referring to a fabric in which the number of ends and the number of picks per inch are not equal.

OILCLOTH: Any fabric treated with linseed-oil varnish to make it waterproof. It comes in plain colors and printed designs and is most commonly used for table covers or shelf covering. It has now been widely replaced by plastic coated fabrics.

OILPROOF: A term describing fabrics that are impervious to oil.

OIL-REPELLENT: A term applied to fabrics that have been treated with finishes to make them resistant to oil stains.

OLEFIN FIBER: A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of ethylene, propylene, or other olefin units. Olefin fibers combine lightweight with high strength and abrasion resistance, and are currently being used in rope, indoor-outdoor carpets, and lawn furniture upholstery. (Also see POLYETHYLENE FIBER and POLYPROPYLENE FIBER.)

OLEOPHILIC: A term describing a substance that has a strong affinity for oils.

OLEOPHOBIC: A term describing a substance that does not have a strong affinity for oils.

OLIGOMER: A polymer molecule consisting of only a few monomer units.

OMBRÉ: A color effect in which the shade is changeable from light to dark, generally produced by using warp yarns of different tones. Ombré effects may also be produced by printing.

ONDULE: A general term for plain-weave fabrics of silk, cotton, or manufactured fiber having a wavy effect produced by weaving the warp or filling, but usually the filling, in a wavy line. An ondule reed is generally used to produce this effect, often in a leno weave to emphasize the wave. Ondule is used for dress fabrics.

ON-STREAM: The state of having been brought into production. The term is usually used for chemical and metallurgical plants or processes.

OPEN-END SPINNING: A system of spinning based on the concept of introducing twist into the yarn without package rotation by simply rotating the yarn end at a gap or break in the flow of the fibers between the delivery system and the yarn package. Because the twisting element can be compact and the mass of material to be rotated is small, very high twisting speeds can be attained. The process, in a sense combines the traditional processes of roving and spinning in one operation. Present work is directed toward incorporating the drafting operation into the process by using card sliver as the feedstock. This can facilitate process linking.

OPEN FACE: A fabric defect consisting of an open appearance of the fabric which permits the filling to “grin” through the warp ends in the center portion of the fabric.

OPENING:
  1. A preliminary operation in the processing of staple fiber. Opening separates the compressed masses of staple into loose tufts and removes the heavier impurities.
  2. An operation in the processing of tow that substantially increases the bulk of the tow by separating the filaments and deregistering the crimp.

OPTICAL BRIGHTENER: 1. A colorless compound that, when applied to fabric, absorbs the ultraviolet radiation in light but emits radiation in the visible spectrum. 2. Fluorescent materials added to polymer in manufactured fiber production that emit light in the visible spectrum, usually with a blue cast.

OPTICAL PROPERTIES: A general term used to refer to the relations of yarn or fibers with light. It includes such parameters as birefringence, refractive index, reflectance, optical density,etc.

OPTIMUM TWIST: In spun yarns, a term to describe the amount of twist that gives the maximum breaking strength or the maximum bulk at strength levels acceptable for weaving or knitting.

ORGANDY: A very thin, transparent, stiff, wiry, muslin fabric used for dresses, neckwear, trimmings, and curtains. Swiss organdy is chemically treated and keeps its crisp, transparent finish through many launderings. Organdy without chemical treatment loses its crispness in laundering and has to be restarched. Organdy crushes or musses but is easily pressed. Shadow organdy has a faint printed design in self-color.

ORGANZA: A stiff, thin, plain weave fabric made of silk, nylon, acrylic, or polyester, organza is used primarily in evening and wedding attire for women.

ORGANIZE YARN: Two or more threads twisted in the singles and then plied in the reverse direction. The number of turns per inch in the singles and in the ply is usually in the range of 10 to 20 turns. Organzine yarn is generally used in the warp.

ORIENTATION: In linear polymeric structures, the degree of parallelism of the chain molecules. through which the polymer flows in the manufacture of fibers.

ORTHO: A chemical prefix, usually abbreviated o, signifying that two substituents appear in adjacent positions on a benzene ring.

OSNABURG: A coarse cotton or polyester/cotton fabric, often partly of waste fiber, in a plain weave, medium to heavy in weight, that looks like crash. Unbleached osnaburg is used for grain and cement sacks, and higher grades are used as apparel and household fabrics.

OTTOMAN: Heavy, large, filling rib yarns, often of cotton, wool, or waste yarn, covered in their entirety by silk or manufactured fiber warp yarns, characterized this fabric used for women’s wear and coats.

OUTFLOW QUENCH: Air for cooling extruded polymer that is directed radially outward from a central dispersion device around which the filaments descend.

OVEN-DRY WEIGHT: The constant weight of a specimen obtained by drying in an oven under prescribed conditions of temperature and humidity.

OVERCUT: A staple fiber that is longer than nominal length. Usually, the length is a multiple of 2, 3, or more times the nominal length. An overcut is caused by the failure of filaments to be cut to the desired length during staple manufacture.

OVERLENGTH: See OVERCUT.

OVERSPRAYING: A term sometimes used to describe the application, by spraying, of a fiber lubricant to staple fibers during opening and blending.

OVER-THE-COUNTER: A term that usually refers to direct sales to a retail customer in a store, as opposed to wholesale marketing.

OXFORD CLOTH: A soft but stout shirting fabric in a modified basket weave with a large filling yarn having no twist woven under and over two single, twisted warp yarns. The fabric is usually made from cotton or polyester/cotton blends and is frequently given a silk like luster finish.

OZONE FADING: The fading of a dyed textile material, especially those in blue shades, caused by atmospheric ozone, (O3).

47 comments:

Lemmiwinks said...

Good post! Looking forward to reading you next one

jura1991 said...

good post

PlanetBen said...

Are you sure overlength and overcut are the same thing?

Insurance Finesse said...

Thanks for the update. Need more informaiton on the O's.

WoW_Updates said...

well well nice post keep it up dude :)

Voacaroo said...

Keep it up

Green_Magix said...

Thanks for the definitions mate! I love information like this!

rominoutozor said...

Thanks for the update ! We waited it ! :D

Monster Madness said...

I wonder what the next post will be about :P

JP said...

hahaha oh god i hope you dont have to learn all of them

dee jey said...

nice

bbonnar said...

Good stuff man !

Fuuuuuuuu said...

this is great information!

Swift Love said...

this is great!

About Insurance said...

cool, can't wait for an update

Cunning Linguist said...

very interesting...

MacPCharmony said...

thanks for sharing

CAE.II said...

Great glossary, very helpful, thanks a lot for sharing this.

This blog seems to just get better and better!

unintentional critic said...

great post! i have now broadened my vocabulary :)
thanks so much!

Come At Me Bro said...

Love this!

amidoinitrite? said...

that gives me something to think about

MDW said...

Solid stuff!

Mez said...

nice infos.

4funz said...

This is great for someone who is not native English speaker (like me)

TechnoMac said...

lol this looks so hard

RoodNverse said...

cool info bro thanks ,

Dan said...

Thats not what I eat for breakfast, my oatmeal is a grain!!

Izi said...

Keep it up this is great ;)

T.dot said...

cool, never seen a blog like this

Nostalgist said...

wow, very detailed! you're a pro!!!

nick said...

thanks for sharing this cool info with us

textileengineer said...

@PlanetBen

Both of those terms related staple fibres, staple fibres are cut lengths from filaments.

AskAMassivePro said...

very interesting

comradejoker.blogspot.com/ said...

SO that's what Oatmeal means...

SpringyB said...

I lol'd at oatmeal. I didn't expect that.

Erroneous Maximus said...

no YOU'RE the Scalloped Selvage!

Copyboy said...

Edible cloth!

ModerneFusion said...

Mmmmmm.... Oatmeall <3

Secret Guide to Shaving said...

I used this blog for some homework tonite. good work.

Digger said...

good info, never know when this will come in handy

Les Payne said...

I'm following this series daily

Mr. Knowitall said...

this is some good stuff

Kartoffeln said...

Origami isn't there? Oh, Jesus.

Saul Goodman said...

wow, pretty cool

Randy said...

gOOOOOOOOOOd pOOOOOOOOst! :p

CrispyPeanutButter said...

another quality thread post

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