TACKINESS: The property of being sticky or adhesive.
TACTIC POLYMER: A polymer whose molecular structure exhibits regularity or symmetry ofnon-backbone side groups rather than random ordering. (Also see ATACTIC POLYMER, ISOTACTIC POLYMER, and SYNDIOTACTIC POLYMER.)
TAFFETA: A plain-weave fabric with a fine, smooth, crisp hand and usually a lustrous appearance. Taffeta fabric usually has a fine cross rib made by using a heavier filling yarn than warp yarn. Taffetas are produced in solid colors, yarn-dyed plaids and stripes, and prints. Changeable and moiré effects are often employed. Although originally made of silk, manufactured fibers are now often used in the production of taffeta.
TAK DYEING: See KUSTERS DYEING RANGE.
TAKE-UP (TWIST): The change in length of a filament, yarn, or cord caused by twisting, expressed as a percentage of the original (untwisted) length.
TAKE-UP (YARN-IN-FABRIC): The difference in distance between two points in a yarn as it lies in a fabric and the same two points after the yarn has been removed from the fabric and straightened under specified tension, expressed as a percentage of the straightened length. In this sense, take-up is contrasted to the crimp of a yarn in a fabric, which is expressed as a percentage of the distance between the two points in the yarn as it lies in the fabric. Take-up is generally used in connection with greige fabric.
TANGENT MODULUS: The ratio of change in stress to change in strain derived from the tangent to any point on a stress-stain curve.
TANGLELACED FABRIC: See SPUNLACED FABRIC.
- A narrow, woven fabric not over 8 inches in width.
- In slide fasteners, a strip of material, along one edge of which the bead and scoops are attached, the bead sometimes being integral with the strip. (Also see SLIT TAPE and NONELASTIC WOVEN TAPE.)
TAPE YARN: See SLIT-FILM YARN.
TARE: The weight of all external and internal packing material (including bobbins, tubes, etc.) of a case, bale, or other type of container.
TARPAULIN: Water-resistant fabric used to protect loads or materials from the elements. May be a coated fabric, a fabric with waterproof finish, or a fabric that is tightly constructed to prevent water penetration.
TASLIN® PROCESS: See TEXTURING, Air Jet Method.
TEAR STRENGTH: The force required to begin or to continue a tear in a fabric under specified conditions.
TEASEL BURR: See NAPPING.
TEMPERATURE OF ZERO BIREFRINGENCE: The temperature at which the refractive indexes of a material are equal in two perpendicular directions (longitudinally and transversely for a fiber).
TENACITY: The tensile stress when expressed as force per unit linear density of the unstrained specimen (e.g., grams-force per denier or newtons per tex). (Also see BREAKING TENACITY.)
TENCEL®: Registered trademark of Tencel, Inc. for their brand of cellulosic staple fiber classified as lyocell. See LYOCELL FIBER.
TENSILE FACTOR: The empirical factor T x E1/2 that describes the tenacity elongation exchange relationship for a large number of manufactured fiber systems.
TENSILE HYSTERESIS CURVE: A complex load-elongation, or stress-strain curve obtained: (1) when a specimen is successively subjected to the application of a load or stress less than that causing rupture and to the removal of the load or stress according to a predetermined procedure; or (2) when a specimen is stretched less than the breaking elongation and allowed to relax by removal of the strain according to a predetermined procedure.
TENSILE RECOVERY CURVE: See TENSILE HYSTERESIS CURVE.
TENSILE STRAIN: The relative length deformation exhibited by a specimen subjected to a tensile force. Strain may be expressed as a fraction of the nominal gauge length or as a percentage. (Also see ELONGATION.)
- In general, the strength shown by a specimen subjected to tension as distinct from torsion, compression, or shear.
- Specifically, the maximum tensile stress expressed in force per unit cross-sectional area of the unstrained specimen, e.g., kilograms per square millimeter, pounds per square inch. (For maximum stress per unit linear density, see BREAKING TENACITY or BREAKING LENGTH.)
TENSILE STRESS: The resistance to deformation developed within a specimen subjected to tension by external force. The tensile stress is commonly expressed in two ways, either as (1) the tensile strength, i.e., the force per unit cross-sectional area of the unstrained specimen, or as (2) tenacity, i.e., the force per unit linear density of the unstrained specimen. The latter is more frequently used in textile testing.
TENSILE TEST: A method of measuring the resistance of a yarn or fabric to a force tending to stretch the specimen in one direction.
TENTER FRAME: A machine that dries fabric to a specified width under tension. The machine consists essentially of a pair of endless chains on horizontal tracks. The fabric is held firmly at the edges by pins or clips on the two chains that diverge as they advance through the heated chamber, adjusting the fabric to the desired width.
TENTER MARK: See CLIP MARK.
TEREPHTHALIC ACID: Para-phthalic acid, [C6H4(COOH)2]. Used to produce polyester resins, fibers, and films by combination with glycols.
TERPOLYMER: A product of the polymerization of three different monomers.
TERRY CLOTH: A cotton or cotton-blend fabric having uncut loops on one or both sides. Made on a dobby loom with a terry arrangement or on a Jacquard loom. It is used for toweling, beach robes, etc.
TERTIARY COLORS: Shades that are obtained by mixing the three primary colors or by mixing one or more of the secondary colors with gray or black.
TETRACHLORIDE: A chloride, such as carbon tetrachloride, containing four atoms of chlorine.
TETRAFLUOROETHYLENE FIBER: See POLYTETRAFLUOROETHYLENE FIBER.
- A unit for expressing linear density, equal to the weight in grams of 1 kilometer of yarn, filament, fiber, or other textile strand.
- The system of yarn numbering based on the use of tex units. (Also see YARN NUMBER.)
TEXTILE: Originally, a woven fabric; now applied generally to any one of the following:
- Staple fibers and filaments suitable for conversion to or use as yarns, or for the preparation of woven, knit, or nonwoven fabrics.
- Yarns made from natural or manufactured fibers.
- Fabrics and other manufactured products made from fibers as defined above and from yarns.
- Garments and other articles fabricated from fibers, yarns, or fabrics when the products retain the characteristic flexibility and drape of the original fabrics.
TEXTILE MATERIALS: A general term for fibers, yarn intermediates, yarn, fabrics, and products made from fabrics that retain more or less completely the strength, flexibility, and other typical properties of the original fiber or filaments.
TEXTILE PROCESSING: Any mechanical operation used to translate a textile fiber or yarn to a fabric or other textile material. This includes such operations as opening, carding, spinning, plying, twisting, texturing, coning, quilling, beaming, slashing, weaving, and knitting.
TEXTURE: A term describing the surface effect of a fabric, such as dull, lustrous, wooly, stiff, soft, fine, coarse, open, or closely woven; the structural quality of a fabric.
TEXTURED: An adjective used to describe continuous filament manufactured yarns (and woven and knit fabrics made therefrom) that have been crimped or have had random loops imparted, or that have been otherwise modified to create a different surface texture. (Also see TEXTURED YARNS and TEXTURING.)
TEXTURED YARNS: Yarns that develop stretch and bulk on subsequent processing. When woven or knitted into fabric, the cover, hand, and other aesthetics of the finished fabric better resemble the properties of a fabric constructed from spun yarn. (Also see TEXTURING.)
Bulked Yarn: Qualitative term to describe a textured yarn. A bulked yarn develops more bulk than stretch in the finished fabric.
Coil Yarn: A textured yarn that takes on a coil or spiral configuration when further processed. A coil yarn can be either a torque yarn or a nontorque yarn. A coil yarn can be formed by the false twist or edge crimp methods. Some bilateral fibers become coiled on further processing.
Core-Bulked Yarn: A bulky or textured yarn composed of two sets of filaments, one of which is straight to give dimensional stability and forms a core around and through which the other set is coiled or looped to give bulk.
Crinkle Yarn: A torque-free textured yarn that is characterized by periodic wave configurations. Crinkle yarns can be formed by the stuffer box, gear crimping, or knit-de-knit methods.
Entangled Yarn: A textured yarn of one variant that develops bulk by the air-jet texturing method.
Modified Stretch Yarn: A stretch yarn that develops more bulk than usual but less bulk than a bulked yarn in the finished fabric.
Nontorque Yarn: A yarn that does not rotate or kink when permitted to hang freely. A nontorque yarn may be the result of plying two equal but opposite torque yarns.
Set Yarn: A textured yarn that is heat relaxed to reduce torque. Set yarns are not stretch yarns.
Stretch Yarn: Qualitative term to describe a textured yarn. A stretch yarn develops more stretch than bulk in the finished fabric.
Torque Yarn: When a torque yarn is permitted to hang freely, it rotates or kinks to relieve the torque introduced into the yarn during texturing.
TEXTURING: The process of crimping, imparting random loops, or otherwise modifying continuous filament yarn to increase cover, resilience, abrasion resistance, warmth, insulation, and moisture absorption or to provide a different surface texture. Texturing methods can be placed roughly into six groups. (Also see TEXTURED YARNS.)
Knit-de-Knit Method: In this method of texturing, the yarn is knit into a 2-inch diameter hose-leg, heat-set in an autoclave, and then unraveled and wound onto a final package. This texturing method produces a crinkle yarn. (Also see TEXTURED YARNS, Crinkle Yarn.)
Stuffer Box Method: The crimping unit consists of two feed rolls and a brass tube stuffer box. By compressing the yarn into the heated stuffer box, the individual filaments are caused to fold or bend at a sharp angle, while being simultaneously set by a heating device. (Also see TEXTURED YARNS, Crinkle Yarn.)
THERMAL BONDING: See THERMOBONDING.
THERMAL CHARACTER: A tactile property of a textile material. It is the difference felt in the temperature of the material and the skin of the person touching it.
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY: A measure of heat flow through a material.
THERMAL FIXATION: See DYEING.
THERMALLY STABILIZED: See HEAT STABILIZED.
THERMOBONDING: A technique for bonding fibers of a web with meltable powders or fibers, using infrared heating, hot air, or hot-calendering. (Also see BONDING, Bonding with Binder Fibers and POWDER-BONDED NON-WOVEN.)
THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS: Analytical technique in which the rate of change in weight of a material undergoing continuous heating versus temperature is plotted. Used in analysis of polymers to provide information on such parameters as degree of crystallinity, glass transition temperature, thermal stability, etc.
THERMO-MAN: See FLAMMABILITY TEST, Thermo-Man.
THERMOPLASTIC: A term used to describe a plastic material that is permanently fusible. The term as applied to manufactured fibers describes their tendency to soften at higher temperatures.
THERMOSET: A term used to describe a plastic that, once formed, does not melt when heated.
THERMOSOL PROCESS: See DYEING, Thermal Fixation.
THERMOTROPIC POLYMER: Polymer that exhibits liquid crystal formation in melt form. In thermotropic polymers there must be a balance between having the necessary degree of molecular perfection to preserve the liquid crystal formation and the amount of imperfection to permit melting at workable temperatures. These polymers give high-modulus, highly oriented, extrusion products.
THICK-AND-THIN YARN: A novelty yarn of varying thickness.
THICK FILLING: See COARSE THREAD.
THIN END: See FINE END, 1.
- A slender, strong strand or cord, especially one designed for sewing or other needlework. Most threads are made by plying and twisting yarns. A wide variety of thread types are in use today, e.g., spun cotton and spun polyester, core-spun cotton with a polyester filament core, polyester or nylon filaments (often bonded), and monofilament threads.
- A general term for yarns used in weaving and knitting, as in “thread count” and “warp thread”.
- The number of ends and picks per inch in a woven cloth.
- The number of wales and courses per inch in a knit fabric.
THREADLINES: The fiber lines of a manufactured fiber in extrusion or subsequent processes.
THREAD OUT: See END OUT.
THREADUP: The process of directing or threading fiber or fabric through all machine positions to start or restart a process, or the configuration resulting therefrom.
THREE-BAR FABRIC: A tricot fabric made on a machine equipped with three guide bars.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL WEAVING: To produce three-dimensional textiles, yarns are simultaneously woven in three directions (length, width, and thickness) rather than in the conventional two. The types of structures that can be produced fall into four broad classes: (1) contoured fabrics, (2) expandable fabrics, (3) interwoven fabrics (Also see DOUBLE WEAVE), and (4) contoured interwoven fabrics.
THROUGHPUT: The amount of raw material processed in a specific time. This is the actual amount, not a percentage.
THROWING: The operation of doubling or twisting silk or manufactured filament yarns.
THROWSTER: A company that specializes in putting additional twist in yarn. More recently, the term also applies to a company that specializes in texturing yarns.
THRUM: The fringe of warp yarns that remains on the loom when the woven fabric has been cut free.
TICKING: A durable, closely woven fabric used for covering box springs, mattresses, and pillows. Ticking may be woven in a plain, satin, or twill weave, usually with strong warp yarns and soft filling yarns.
TIE-BACK: See STICKER, 1.
TIGHT or LOOSE END: A taut or slack warp end caused by too much or too little tension on an individual end while weaving, by ridgy section or warp beams, by incorrect tensions in beaming or sizing, or as a result of faulty fabric design.
TIGHT SPOT: See TWIT.
TIME-TO-BREAK: In tensile testing, the time interval during which a specimen is under prescribed conditions of tension and is absorbing the energy required to reach maximum load.
TINT: Coloration that produces a very pale shade. A tint usually represents the minimum amount of color that will give perceptible appearance of coloration. In yarn processing, fugitive tints are used for identification, then removed in wet processing.
TIP-SHEARED CARPET: A textured pile carpet similar to a random-sheared carpet, but with a less defined surface effect.
TIRE-BUILDER FABRIC: Fabric consisting of tire cord in the warp with single yarn filling at extended intervals.
TIRE CONSTRUCTION: The geometry of the various layers of tire fabric in the final tire. Three constructions are commonly used.
Bias Tire: In this construction, tire fabric is laid alternately at bias angles of 25 to 40° to the tread direction. An even number of layers (or piles) is used.
Radial Tire: In a radial tire, tire fabric traverses the body of the tire at 90° to the tread direction. Atop the tire fabric are laid alternating narrow layers of fabric at low angles of 10 to 30° to the tread direction; the belt that is formed around the tire body restricts the movement of the body.
Bias/Belted Tire: This tire construction combines features of the preceding two. The first layers of fabric are identical to the bias tire. The belt is added in alternating layers at 20° to the tread direction.
TIRE CORD: A textile material used to impart the flex resistance necessary for tire reinforcement. Tire yarns of polyester, rayon, nylon, aramid, glass, or steel are twisted to 5 to 12 turns per inch. Two or more of these twisted yarns are twisted together in the opposite direction to obtain a cabled tire cord. The twist level required depends on the material, the yarn linear density, and the particular application of the cord. Normally, tire cords are twisted to about the same degree in the S and Z directions, which means that the net effect is almost zero twist in the finished cord. (Also see TIRE FABRIC.)
TIRE FABRIC: A loose fabric woven to facilitate large-scale dipping, treating, and calendering of tire cords. Usually, 15 to 35 tire cords per inch of warp are woven into a tire fabric by 2 to 5 light filling yarns per inch. In these fabrics, the strength is in the warp and the filling only holds cords in position for processing. The filling yarns are normally broken during tire molding. The warp cords are polyester, rayon, nylon, aramid, glass, or steel and range in strength from 30 pounds to over 100 pounds per cord. A 60-inch fabric would normally have a warp strength of about 7,000 pounds. Such fabrics are used for tire carcasses and tire belts. More conventional square woven fabrics are used in certain parts of a tire such as the bead, chafer, and wrapping. (Also see TIRE CORD.)
TITANIUM DIOXIDE: A compound (TiO2) that occurs naturally in three different forms (rutile, anatase, and brookite). It is used chiefly as a pigment or delusterant in paint or fiber.
TOBACCO CLOTH: A thin, lightweight, open cloth used to shade and protect tobacco plants.
TOE CLOSING: In knitting hosiery, this term refers to closing the toe opening. It may be knit closed, or in tube hosiery, sewn closed.
- A broad term describing many simple plain weave twill fabrics, especially those made from linen.
- Sheer cotton and linen fabrics.
TONGUE TEAR STRENGTH: The average force required to tear a rectangular sample with a cut in the edge at the center of the shorter side. The two tongues are gripped in a tensile tester and the force required to continue and tear is measured.
- A wool sliver that has been combed to straighten the fibers and to remove short fiber; an intermediate stage in the production of worsted yarn.
- A similar untwisted strand of manufactured staple delivered by the comb or made directly from tow.
TOP COLORS: Colors used on the ground color to form a design.
- The process of covering with an additional dye, not necessarily of the same color or class, to obtain the desired shade.
- Fiber in top form is placed in cans and dyed in a batch-dye vessel with reverse cycling capability. An expensive process that is used primarily for fancy yarns.
TORQUE: A force or a combination of forces that produces or tends to produce a twisting or rotating motion. In reference to yarn, torque refers to the yarn’s tendency to turn on itself, or kink, as a result of twisting.
TORQUE YARN: See TEXTURED YARNS.
TOTAL DENIER (OF TOW): The product of the denier per filament times the number of filaments in a tow.
- Ability of a material to endure large deformations without rupture.
- The actual work per unit mass required to rupture a fiber or a yarn.
TOW: A large strand of continuous manufactured fiber filaments without definite twist, collected in loose, rope-like form, usually held together by crimp. Tow is the form that most manufactured fiber reaches before being cut into staple. It is often processed on tow-conversion machinery into tops, sliver, or yarn, or on tow-opening equipment to make webs for various uses.
TRANSESTERIFICATION: In the production of polyester from dimethyl terephthalate and ethylene glycol, the process of exchanging ethylene glycol for the methyl groups to obtain bis-β- hydroxyethyl terephthalate. The methanol generated in the reaction is removed as it is formed to drive the reaction to completion.
TRANSITION TEMPERATURE: A temperature at which some radical change, usually a phase change, in the appearance or structure of a substance occurs. Examples of transition temperatures are melting point, boiling point, and second-order transition temperature.
TRAPEZOID TEAR TESTER: See ELMENDORF TEAR TESTER.
TRAPPED END: An end that is unable to unwrap or unwind from the beam. Trapping of an end may be prolonged or intermittent depending upon the cause of trapping (e.g., rolled ends at the selvage, short ends, or mechanical difficulties).
TRAVELER: A C-shaped, metal clip that revolves around the ring on a ring spinning frame. It guides the yarn onto the bobbin as twist is inserted into the yarn.
TRAVERSE LENGTH: The lateral distance between the points of reversal of the wind on a yarn package.
TRAVERSE RATIO: See WIND RATIO.
TREE BARK: A term describing the rippled or wavy effect sometimes seen when a bonded fabric is stretched in the horizontal (widthwise) direction. This defect is caused by bias tensions present when two distorted or skewed fabrics are bonded.
TRIACETIN: Glycerol triacetate. A type of plasticizer for acetate fibers. It is widely used toadd firmness to cigarette filter rods.
TRIAXIAL FABRICS: Completely isotropic fabrics made in a weaving process employing three yarns at 60° angles to each other. These fabrics have no stretch or distortion in any direction. With equal sizes and number of yarns in all three directions, the fabric approaches equal strength and stiffness in all directions.
TRICOT: A generic term for the most common type of warp-knit fabric. It has fine wales on the face and coursewise ribs on the back. It can be made in a plain jersey construction or in meshes, stripes, and many other designs. Tricot is usually made of triacetate, acetate, polyester, nylon, or rayon. (Also see JERSEY and KNITTING, 1.)
TRICOT BEAM: A metal flanged beam, commonly 42 inches in width, on which yarn is wound for use as a supply for the tricot machine.
TRICOT FABRIC YIELD: The number of square yards per pound of greige or finished tricot fabric.
TRICOT KNITTING: See KNITTING, 1.
TRICOT SECTION: See TRICOT BEAM.
TRIMER: A polymer consisting of three monomer units. (Also see CYCLIC TRIMER.)
TRISKELION CROSS SECTION: A trilobal cross section in which the radiating arms are curved or bent. (Also see CROSS SECTION.)
TRISTIMULUS VALUES: In shade matching during dyeing, these values represent the amount of each of the three primary colors that, when mixed additively, will generate the desired shade.
TRUE TENSILE STRENGTH: The maximum tensile stress expressed in force per unit area of the specimen at the time of rupture. (Also see TENSILE STRENGTH.)
TUB: See BECK.
- A cylindrical holder or bobbin used as a core for a cylindrical yarn package.
- A cylindrical yarn package.
TUBULAR FABRIC: A fabric woven or knit in a tube form with no seams, such as seamless pillowcases, some knit underwear fabrics, and seamless hosiery. (Also see CIRCULAR-KNIT FABRIC.)
TUCK STITCH: A knitting stitch made when a needle receives a new yarn without losing its old loop.
- A cluster of soft yarns drawn through a fabric and projecting from the surface in the form of cut yarns or loops.
- The portion of pile-like material that comprises a tufted fabric or carpet. (Also see TUFTED FABRIC and TUFTED CARPET.)
TUFTED FABRIC: Cotton sheeting, lightweight duck, or other fabric decorated with fluffy tufts of multiple-ply, soft-twist cotton yarns or manufactured fiber yarns closely arranged in continuous lines or spaced at intervals to produce the type of fabric called candlewick. The tufts are inserted and cut by machine in previously woven fabric or are woven in by the loom and afterwards cut to form the tufts. They have a chenille-like softness and bulk and are erroneously called chenille. Patterns vary from simple straight lines and elaborate designs to completely covered materials resembling long pile fabrics. The may be white, solid colored, or multicolored. Tufted fabrics are used for bedspreads, bath mats, and robes, etc.
TULLE: A fine, very lightweight, machine-made net usually having a hexagonal mesh effect. Tulle is used in ballet costumes and veils.
TUNNEL TEST: See FLAMMABILITY TESTS.
TURBIDITY: The decrease in optical transparency of a solution because of the presence of particulate matter.
TURN: The distance parallel to the axis of a yarn or rope in which a strand makes one complete spiral. (Also see TWIST.)
TURNED-OVER EDGE: A curled selvage.
TWEED: An irregular, soft, flexible, unfinished, shaggy wool or wool-blend fabric made with a 2/2 twill weave. Tweeds are used in all types of coat fabrics and suitings.
TWILL WEAVE: A fundamental weave characterized by diagonal lines produced by a series of floats staggered in the warp direction. The floats are normally formed by filling (filling-faced twill). A warp-face twill is a weave in which the warp yarns produce the diagonal effect.
TWILO PROCESS: A spinning process in which yarn is made by binding fibers with an adhesive, then removing the adhesive after the yarn is made into fabric.
- A plied yarn made form medium-twist single yarns with ply twist in the opposite direction.
- A single-strand yarn, usually 3 or 4 millimeters in diameter, made of hard fibers, such as henequen, sisal, abaca, or phormium, and sufficiently stiff to perform satisfactorily on a mechanical grain binder.
TWIST: The number of turns about its axis per unit of length of a yarn or other textile strand. Twist is expressed as turns per inch (tpi), turns per meter (tpm), or turns per centimeter (tpcm).
TWIST BLEED: See TWIT.
- The process of combining filaments into yarn by twisting them together or combining two or more parallel singles yarns (spun or filament) into plied yarns or cords. Cables are made by twisting plied yarns or cords. Twisting is also employed to increase strength, smoothness, and uniformity, or to obtain novelty effects in yarn.
- A very high level of twist is added to single or plied yarns to make crepe yarns. This operation generally is called creping or throwing.
- The process of adding twist to a filament yarn to hold the filaments together for ease in subsequent textile processing, etc.
TWIST MULTIPLIER: The ratio of turns per inch to the square root of the yarn count.
TWIST SETTING: A process for fixing twist in yarns to deaden torque and eliminate kinking during further processing. There are several methods that use steam to condition the packages of yarns.
TWIT: A short section of real twist in false-twist yarn that prevents crimp development and hence causes a pinhole effect in fabric. Also called twist bleed or tight spot.
TWO-FOR-ONE TWISTER: A twister that inserts twist at a rate of twice the spindle speed. For example, at a spindle speed of 2,000 rpm, 4,000 turns per minute are inserted in the yarn.